Burom ïa ka Jingstad Tynrai ki Nongrep

Bhogtoram Mawroh bad Pius Ranee

Ka jinglamphang ïa ka Green Revolution (kumba ngi tip mynta kum ka GR) ha ka Ri India ha u snem 1960 ka dei kawei na ki jinglap bakhraw ha ka Ri India. Wat la ki bun ki jingjynjar, khamtam ka jingroi ha ka jingbun briew bad ka jingduna bam, ka Ri India ka lah pynbud ïa kane ka rukom rep ba la lah leh da u Norman Borlaug (nongjop jong ka khusnam Nobel Peace Prize 1970) bad ki nongïalap kam jong u ha Mexico ban wanrah ïa ki jingpynkylla kiba khraw ha ka rep ka riang ha Ri India.

Lyngba ka Green Revolution, ïa ki nongrep la pynhikai ban ym pyndonkam shuh da ki symbai tynrai bad ban pyndonkam noh da ki symbai ba lah khleh dawai (kita ki symbai HYV). Kane ka jingleh ka lah ai lad ïa ka Ri India ban pynmih hi ïa la ka bam ba donkam. Ka jingseisoh na kane ka rukom thung ka long bun shah ïa kaba ju long. Ki nongrep ruh ki lah riewspah na kane ka rukom rep hynrei kane ka jingroi baroh ka neh tang shipor. Mynta, ka jingmih jong ki jingrep ka lah sah katjuh bad ki jingshitom bad jingjynjar nawei pat ki dang bun dang bun na ka daw jong ka GR. Ki jingjynjar kiba khraw kiba wan lang bad ka GR ki dei ka jingduh noh ïa ka rukom rep tynrai, ka jingkiew ka jingdap ram ki nongrep, ka jingsniew jong ka khyndew bad mariang bad kiwei kiwei ki jingjynjar. Nalor kine, ka jingstad jong kine ki nongrep kaba lah hiar pateng la pateng ka lah sdang ban duh noh.

Ha u snem 1935, u NI Vavilov, u stad saïans jong ka Ri Russia u la pynmih ïa ki kyrteng jong ki jaka ba u ngeit ba ki dei ki bym donkam jingkyrshan ban pynmih jingthung jingtep ha kylleng ka pyrthei. Ha kine ki jaka ki don bunjait ki jingthung tynrai bad ki jingthung ba mih sha khlaw. Kine ki jaka ki kynthup ïa ka Central America bad ka Mexico; ki bynta jong ka Andes, Chile bad ka Brazil-Paraguay; Ka Mediterranean East; Ethiopia; Central Asia. Ka Indian Centre (kaba kynthup ïa ka jylla Meghalaya jong ngi) ka dei ka jaka kaba lah tip kum ka jaka ba mih ki jingthung tynrai kiba kynthup ïa ki jingthung kum ki kait, krai, khaw, mator, snepkor, soh khia, phan karo, shriew, sha, sia sia, long, soh baingon, sying, jait dai, melon, soh pieng, shana mator, pai, u sohjew bad kiwei kiwei.

Ha ki snem 1970, lah lap ba don kumba 100,000 ki jait khaw ha ka Ri India. Ki jaka riewlum ki dei ba riewspah ha ka mei mariang. Ka North East Slow Food and Agrobiodiversity Society (NESFAS) ka lah shim bynta ha ka rukom wad ïa ki thup jingbam ba mih sha khlaw sha btap bad ba rep ruh de ha ki 32 tylli ki shnong(kiba kynthup ia 28 tylli ki shnong na ka jylla Meghalaya bad saw tylli na Nagaland). Ki lah shem ba ki don kumba 202 tylli ki jingthung ha kawei ka shnong.Kane ka kynthup ïa ki jhur khlaw bad ki jhur ba rep ha ki lyngkha.

Ka jingjied bad jingbuh symbai jong ki nongrep na mynbarim bad pateng-la-pateng ka lah ban ïarap ïa ki nongrep mynta ban pyndonkam biang ïa kine ki symbai tynrai kiba naduh mynshwa. Kane ka rukom ka lah ïarap ruh ban pynriewspah ia ka mei-mariang ha ka liang jong ki jait jhur ba ïoh na kper, lyngkha, bri, pynthor ne khlaw. Kane ka jingpahuh ki jait jingthung ka long namr ka rukom rep tynrai kaba rep bun jait bad khlem dawai.

Naduh ba mih nyngkong ka rukom rep rukom riang, u khun bynriew kumba 10,000 snem mynshwa (lane 8000 BCE ), u lah pyndonkam ïa ka ka jingstad jong u ban tei bad ban pynkiew ïa la ki shnong ki thaw kaba dei u budlum ha ka jingkiew ka jaitbynriew. Hynrei naduh ba mih ka rukom rep ïoh nong kum ka GR, baroh kine ki jingleh ba mynshwa ba lah pynim ïa u khun bynriew ki lah long kiba sahdien. Ha ka jaka jong ka rukom rep thymmai, ka rukom rep ha kane ka juk mynta bad ka jingpyndonkam ïa ki dawai bapher bapher kaba lah pynmih na ki khar- khana pynmih dawai, hynrei ka pyntroiñ ïa ka rep ka riang. Ki nongrep ki bym treh ban rep ha ki rukom rep thymmai, ki lah shah kheiñ kum ki briew kiba bieit bad ruh kiba dang sah jingdum. Baroh kane ka jingstad jong ki ba lah hiar pateng da ki hajar snem lah shah kheiñ kum ka bym long kam bad ba sah dien.
Tangba, hadien ba ka jur palat ka jingsniew jong ka mei-mariang na kane ka jingrep ïohnong jong ka GR, lah sdang mih sa ki jingartatien ïa ka rukom trei kam jong kane ka rukom rep. Lah sdang ruh ban bun biang ki briew ba ïohi ïa ka jingmyntoi jong ka rukom rep tynrai. Kat kum ka ka seng bah ka UNESCO, ka jingstad tynrai jong ki nonrep ka long”…ka jingsngewthuh, ka rukom leh, ka jingngeit bad jingsngewthuh bha ïa ka mei mariang bad ki rukom rep kaba mih na ka jingstad ki pateng, bad kaba myntoi haduh mynta”.

Ka NESFAS ha ka jingtreikam jong ka ka wad jingtip bad ka kwah ban kyntiew pat ïa ka rukom rep tynrai. Ki kynhun nongrep kiba la la ithuh kum kita ki Agroecology Learning Circles (ALC) ki dei ki kynhun kiba ïaleh ban ïa tai ia ki rukom rep tynrai kiba dang leh haduh mynta bad ban pyni ruh ba ki dei kiba bha eh na ka liang ka jingseisoh ne na ka liang ka jingbha ka khyndew, symbai bad kiwei kiwei. Ki ALC ki dei ruh ka jaka ba ki nongshong shnong bad ki stad saïantist ki lah ban ïakynduh ban ïa ai jingmut bad ïarap lang ïa iwei iwei shaphang ki rukom trei kam thymmai lyngba ki tiar ban pyndonkam khnang ban roi bha ki rukom rep tynrai bad ka jingdap biang ka bam. Ka NESFAS ryngkat bad ka Society for Urban and Rural & Rural Empowerment (SURE), Social Service Centre (SSC) bad ka North East Network NEN), ki lah thaw ia ki ALC ha ki katno katne tylli ki shong kiba ki trei kam.

Ki nongrep tynrai, ki dei ki nongkitkam bad ki dkhot jong kine ki ALC. Ha ka por ba sdang pyntrei kam ïa kine ki ALC, ki dkhot ki ia shong pyrkhat kam ki ia pyrkhat ïa ki jingeh ba ki ïa kynduh ha ka jingrep jong ki. Ki ia wad ruh ïa ki jubab bad jingtip hapdeng jong ki bad ki ïa ai bun jingmut ban ai jingïarap na ka bynta ka jingbam khñiang, ka jingsniew ka khyndew bad kiwei kiwei. Nangta ki ïa shim ïa ka rai ba kin leh eksperimen ha kano ka jingeh. Ha ka 17 tarik u Risaw 2019 ryngkat bad ka jingkyrshan jong ka Living Farms, Orissa, lah pynlong ïa ka jingïakynduh jong ki nongrep ha Ri Khasi bad Jaintia bad Garo ruh ban phylliew jingmut bad ïathuh lang shaphang ki kam ka ALC. Ha kane ka prokram, u Thomas Iangjuh, Junior Saiantist jong ka Bio Resource Development Centre, Shillong, u lah wanrah ha ki nongrep shaphang ki rukom pyniap khñiang khlem ki dawai.

Hynrei kaba kham kongsan ka long ka jingpyni jong lai tylli ki ALC ïa ki jinglap jong ki eksperimen jong ki. Kine ki ki kynthup ïa ki nongshong shong ka Bhoirymbong (Khweng, Liarsluid bad Khliehumstem) (Umsning Block, Ri Bhoi), Umsawwar (Mawkynrew Block, East Khasi Hills), bad Mawhiang (Mawsynram Block, East Khasi Hills).

Ha Bhoirymbong ka ALC eksperimen ka dei shaphang ka rukom ïada ïa ki jhur na ka jingpynjot ki khñiang ha kaba ki dkhot ALC ki lah ïathuh shaphang u cut worm/ñiangkhung (Agrotis ipsilon) bad u Corm borer/Niagriej (Haplosonyx chalybaeus) kum ki khñiang ba dei ban pynjulor bha ia ki jingthung. Kine ki jait khñiang ki pynsniew ïa u phan bad ka shriew. Ban pynduna ïa ka jingpynjulor jong kine ki khñiang, ki dkhot ki la thaw saw tylli ki lad; ban pyndap ïa ki tynrai jong ka shriew da u kba; u riewhadem lwet, u khaw pyrsit bad da ka khyndew. Ia kane ka eksperimen la sdang ha u bnai Jymmang 2019 bad la kut ha u bnai Jylliew 2019 da kaba ki dkhot ki la tih ïa ka shriew bad u phan na kine ki jaka ba la leh eksperimen. Lah lap ba ka jingbam kitei ki khñiang ka la duna shibun eh bad kane ka la kyntiew ïa ka jingseisoh ka shriew bad u phan. Ki dkhot jong kane ka ALC ki long i Bah Wosly Muktieh, Kong Ridian Syiem bad i Kong Triol Jalong.

Sa kawei ka eksperimen ba ïasyriem, lah leh kumjuh da ka Mawhiang ALC. Ki dkhot kiba shim bynta ha kane ki dei i Kong Radalin Kharraswai bad i Kong Iorial Nongsiej. Hangne ki dkhot ki la peit bha ïa u cut worm/ñiangkhung (Agrotis ipsilon) bad ki red ants/ Dkhiew Saw (Solenopsis) kiba kthah ïa ka shriew bad u phan. Ki la leh artylli ki eksperimen; ki la tah da ka shun ïa ki symbai phan shwa ban thung ban pyllait ïa ki na ki dkhiew saw (Solenopsis); ban kiar na u ñiangkhung (Agrotis ipsilon) pat, lah thung da u syntiew mongngor (ne marigold) hajan ka shriew. Kine ki eksperimen lah sdang ha u bnai Lber 2019 bad lah kut ha u Jylliew 2019. Ha kane ruh, la shem ba ka jingbam khñiang ha baroh ar ki eksperimen ka la duna shibun eh. Ka jingduna ha ka jingduhnong jong ki jingthung ha Bhoirymbong bad Mawhiang ka lah pynroi bha ka ka jingrep jong u phan bad ka shriew ha kine ki jaka.

Ha ka ALC ha Umsawwar pat, ki lah shim ïa ka kam ban pynbha ïa ka khyndew kum ka eksperimen jong ki. Iwei na ki dkhot kane ka ALC i Kong Tronila Lynshiang i lah shimti ban long nongïalam bad kiwei pat ki dkhot ka ALC ki long i Kong Theirisa Nongrum, Kong Saphina Suting, Kong Earnestina Mynsong, Kong Sitamary Nongrum, Kong Shidalin Nongrum, bad i Kong Ledran Suting.

Ki rukom shna sboh ba lah hikai da i Kong Tronila Lynshiang ki dei kumne: tih ar tylli ki thliew, kawei ban shna ïa ka sboh bad kawei ban buh bha ia ka sboh. Siang bha da u skum ha madan sem sniang, bad ieh katto katne sngi, ai ba u sniang un ïuh ïa u skum. Nangta sa shim noh ïa u phlang bad buh ka kawei na ki thliew bad sa theh pat nalor da ka eit sniang bad dpei man ka step ryngkat bad u phlang ïap, ki ñiut kper, ki tnat dieng bad ki sla jong ki jingthung ba long dawai. Yn tip ba ka sboh ka lah long ynda kine ki skum bad ñiut ki lah sdang jem. Rah noh ïa kane ka sboh ba la jem ha ka thliew baa r haduh ban da pyndonkam ïa ka. Hap ban khleh bha ïa ka sboh shuwa ban pyndonkam.

Da kane ka sboh, la rep phan. Iwei na ki dkhot ym shim pyndonkam da kane ka sboh ban rep phan. Haba la peit ïa ka khyndew bad tih ïa u phan, ki nongrep ki lap ba ka khydew ba pyndnkam da ka sboh ka kham bha bad u phan u kham seisoh.

Kine ki ALC ki la ïohi ïa ka jingseisoh ka kam jong ki bad ki dang leh pat sa kiwei pat ki eksperimen. Ka Mawlum Mawjaksew ALC (Mawthadrashian Block, West Khasi Hills) ka mut sdang ïa ka eksperimen ïa u beetle/Niangbyrnai (Phyllophaga). Ha kane ka eksperimen ki sla jong u sohpang khlieh (Lantana camara) lah ot bad la tep ha ka por thung ïa une u jhur. Ia mynta kine ki eksperimen baroh ki dang shah kynthup hapoh ka jingtrei kam ka NESFAS.

Nalor kine ka jingthmu jong ka ALC kadei long ban kyntiew ïa ka jingstad tynrai ryngkat bad ki ka rukom rep tynrai ha kaba yn lah ruh ban pynneh ïa ki bam tynrai pateng la pateng ki bynriew. Ka Umsawwar ALC ka lah thmu ban iathuh paidbah ki jinglap jong ka eksperimen jong ki ha ki nongshong shnong haba long dorbar bah.

Ka pyrthei baroh kawei ka shem bun ki jingshitom kiba mih na ki rukom rep bym biang kaba wanrah ïa ki jingma ïa ka lawei jong ka mariang. Ka jingkyntiew ïa ki rukom rep tynrai jong ki nongshong shnong jong ka Meghalaya bad Nagaland ka dei kawei na ki lad ban ialeh pyrshah ia kane ki jingeh ba ki nongrep ki iashem. Lyngba ka ALC ka NESFAS, SURE, SSC bad ka NEN ki dang iakhun ban leh ïa kane. Ban pynkut ïa kane, ngi dei ban tip shphang ki jait jingbam tynrai na ka thaiñ jong ngi bad ngim dei ruh ban kheiñ sahdien ia ka rukom rep tynrai namar ba ki jingthung ki dei kibym ki kynja dawai kiba pynsniew ia ka met bad ruh ïa ka mariang.

Shaphang ki nongthoh
U Bah Bhogtoram Mawroh u dei u Senior Associate ha NESFAS bad lah ban ïoh jingtip na u ha bhogtoram.nesfas@gmail.com
U Bah Pius Ranee u dei u Senior Associate ha NESFAS bad lah ban ïoh jingtip na u ha piusranee. nesfas @gmail.com

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